Soups have been part of our diet since the Prehistoric times. However, the word we use nowadays is quite modern. The Latin term suppa, which referred to a slice of bread soaked in broth or a liquid mixture, was borrowed from a Germanic source. Same source as the word “sop”, a piece of bread used to soak up soup or a thick stew, and “supper”, dinner.
A term originally from Latin is minestra and ministornes, the Italian terms along with zuppa. they both come from the verb ministrāre “to serve”.
Only a handful of languages uses their own term, but they are very interesting cases: Slovenes & Croats eat “juha” an ancient word, inherited from Proto-Slavic juxa, but lost in other Slavic languages and replaced by the Germanic term. Exceptionally, in Czech & Slovak cuisine has polévka & polievka, from the verb polévat “to pour”.
In the East, Turkish, Arabs, Kazakhs, and other peoples share a common Persian term: شوربا (šurbâ). Despite the apparent similarities with soup, they are not cognates. In the Balkans, this word is known and used to refer to their traditional soups.